6502 Emulator Example Code

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This is a collection of simple examples of 6502 assembly language code which will run in the 6502 Emulator. To use this code, copy and paste one of these programs into the text box of the emulator.

This code is Copyright ©2020-2022 Seneca College of Applied Arts and Technology. Each of these programs is free software; you can redistribute them and/or modify them under the terms of the General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.

Fill the Bitmapped Display

      lda #$00     ; set pointer at $10 to $0200
      sta $10
      lda #$02
      sta $11
      ldx #$06     ; max value for $11, the high byte of the pointer
      ldy #$00     ; index - this value is added to the pointer

      lda #$07     ; colour code to be used to fill the display

loop: sta ($10),y  ; store colour to the value of the pointer + Y
      iny          ; increment index - prepare to fill next pixel
      bne loop     ; branch until page done - stops when Y==0
      inc $11      ; increment high byte of pointer
      cpx $11      ; compare with max value
      bne loop     ; continue if not done 
      brk          ; done - return to debugger

Place a Message on the Character Display

Without using the ROM routines

 define SCREEN $f000     ; location of screen memory

           ldy #$00      ; index value (character we're currently processing)
 char:     lda text,y    ; get a character from address (text + Y)
           beq done      ; if the character is NULL, branch to done
           sta SCREEN,y  ; store character at (SCREEN + Y)
           iny           ; increment Y (go to next character)
           bne char      ; repeat loop
 done:     brk           ; when we're done, break (stop the program)
 text:                   ; this is the text message
 dcb "6","5","0","2",32,"w","a","s",32,"h","e","r","e",".",00

Using the ROM routines

; ROM routines
define		SCINIT		$ff81 ; initialize/clear screen
define		CHRIN		$ffcf ; input character from keyboard
define		CHROUT		$ffd2 ; output character to screen
define		SCREEN		$ffed ; get screen size
define		PLOT		$fff0 ; get/set cursor coordinates

          jsr SCINIT  ; initialize and clear the screen
          ldy #$00

char:     lda text,y
          beq done
          jsr CHROUT  ; put the character in A on to the screen
          bne char

done:     brk

dcb "6","5","0","2",32,"w","a","s",32,"h","e","r","e",".",00

Type on the Screen

; let the user type on the first page of character screen
; has blinking cursor!
; does not use ROM routines
; backspace works (non-destructive), arrows/ENTER don't
next:     ldx #$00
idle:     inx
          cpx #$10
          bne check
          lda $f000,y
          eor #$80
          sta $f000,y

check:    lda $ff
          beq idle

          ldx #$00
          stx $ff

          cmp #$08 ; bs
          bne print

          lda $f000,y
          and #$7f
          sta $f000,y

          jmp next

print:    sta $f000,y
          jmp next

Place a Graphic on the Screen

 define WIDTH 	4 ; width of graphic
 define HEIGHT 	4 ; height of graphic
 	lda #$25	; create a pointer at $10
 	sta $10		;   which points to where
 	lda #$02	;   the graphic should be drawn
 	sta $11
 	lda #$00	; number of rows we've drawn
 	sta $12		;   is stored in $12
 	ldx #$00	; index for data
 	ldy #$00	; index for screen column
 draw:	lda data,x
 	sta ($10),y
 	cpy #WIDTH
 	bne draw
 	inc $12		; increment row counter
 	lda #HEIGHT	; are we done yet?
 	cmp $12
 	beq done	; ...exit if we are
 	lda $10		; load pointer
 	adc #$20	; add 32 to drop one row
 	sta $10
 	lda $11         ; carry to high byte if needed
 	adc #$00
 	sta $11
 	ldy #$00
 	beq draw
 done:	brk		; stop when finished
 data:                 ; graphic to be displayed
 dcb 00,03,03,00
 dcb 07,00,00,07
 dcb 07,00,00,07
 dcb 00,03,03,00

Etch-a-Sketchtm Style Drawing

; zero-page variable locations
define	ROW		$20	; current row
define	COL		$21	; current column
define	POINTER		$10	; ptr: start of row
define	POINTER_H	$11

; constants
define	DOT		$01	; dot colour
define	CURSOR		$04	; black colour

	 	ldy #$00	; put help text on screen
print:		lda help,y
		beq setup
		sta $f000,y
		bne print

setup:		lda #$0f	; set initial ROW,COL
		sta ROW
		sta COL

draw:		lda ROW		; ensure ROW is in range 0:31
		and #$1f
		sta ROW

		lda COL		; ensure COL is in range 0:31
		and #$1f
		sta COL

		ldy ROW		; load POINTER with start-of-row
		lda table_low,y
		lda table_high,y

		ldy COL		; store CURSOR at POINTER plus COL
		lda #CURSOR
		sta (POINTER),y

getkey:		lda $ff		; get a keystroke
		beq getkey

		ldx #$00	; clear out the key buffer
		stx $ff

		cmp #$43	; handle C or c
		beq clear
		cmp #$63
		beq clear

		cmp #$80	; if not a cursor key, ignore
		bmi getkey
		cmp #$84
		bpl getkey

		pha		; save A

		lda #DOT	; set current position to DOT
		sta (POINTER),y

		pla		; restore A

		cmp #$80	; check key == up
		bne check1

		dec ROW		; ... if yes, decrement ROW
		jmp done

check1:		cmp #$81	; check key == right
		bne check2

		inc COL		; ... if yes, increment COL
		jmp done

check2:		cmp #$82	; check if key == down
		bne check3

		inc ROW		; ... if yes, increment ROW
		jmp done

check3:		cmp #$83	; check if key == left
		bne done

		dec COL		; ... if yes, decrement COL
		bcc done

clear:		lda table_low	; clear the screen
		lda table_high

		ldy #$00

c_loop:		sta (POINTER),y
		bne c_loop

		cpx #$06
		bne c_loop

done:		clc		; repeat
		bcc draw

; these two tables contain the high and low bytes
; of the addresses of the start of each row

dcb $02,$02,$02,$02,$02,$02,$02,$02
dcb $03,$03,$03,$03,$03,$03,$03,$03
dcb $04,$04,$04,$04,$04,$04,$04,$04
dcb $05,$05,$05,$05,$05,$05,$05,$05,

dcb $00,$20,$40,$60,$80,$a0,$c0,$e0
dcb $00,$20,$40,$60,$80,$a0,$c0,$e0
dcb $00,$20,$40,$60,$80,$a0,$c0,$e0
dcb $00,$20,$40,$60,$80,$a0,$c0,$e0

; help message for the character screen

dcb "A","r","r","o","w",32,"k","e","y","s"
dcb 32,"d","r","a","w",32,"/",32,"'","C","'"
dcb 32,"k","e","y",32,"c","l","e","a","r","s"
dcb 00

Additional Examples

Additional examples, as well as the source code for the emulator's ROM routines, are in a repository at https://github.com/ctyler/6502js-code